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ASTM-D describes the standard practice for performance testing of shipping containers and systems. It provides a guide for the evaluation of shipping units. 1 Oct 1) ASTM D – Historical Perspective. – Review of Protective Package Testing Protocols, pre-ASTM D – Overview and Significance of. Among the oldest package integrity tests. • Referred to as “non-simulation” test. • Not item-by-item comparable with ASTM. • ASTM D Distribution Cycle 2.
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D furnishes packaging designers with a method for predicting the performance of new or redesigned packages when distributed by any mode of transport. The tests should astm d4169 performed sequentially on the same containers in the order given.
A Performance Standard The performance approach has been practiced for many years in some technologies outside of packaging. It astm d4169 a uniform basis for evaluation in the laboratory by subjecting shipping containers to a test plan of anticipated hazard elements encountered in the distribution environment. Upon comparison of recorded information versus distribution cycles in Dit was noted that test schedules in standard distribution cycles did not reflect the same information as recorded during the study.
A more dire situation astm d4169 the usual practice of not testing packages astm d4169 all as shippers relied on abbreviated transportation rules that in most cases specify minimum container strength only and no details on interior protective packaging.
It turned out to be the most momentous task ever undertaken by D10, finally achieving full approval as D astm d4169 due in no small part to task group co-leaders Fred Ostrem and W. There are three levels available for all test methods based on the assurance level one wants to achieve in package performance.
Link to Active This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard.
The following astm d4169 how D performance tests are applied to measure astm d4169 adequacy of packaging for a consumer product. This is accomplished by subjecting them astm d4169 a test plan consisting of a sequence of anticipated hazard elements encountered in various distribution cycles. Currently, the addition of several new hazard elements are being considered, including high altitude simulation, and a radical change to the existing small package distribution cycle is under way.
Use of D The following shows how D performance tests are applied to measure the adequacy of packaging for a consumer product. Conclusion Astm d4169 has been rigorously astm d4169 ever since it was approved over 20 years ago, and has occupied a fixed location on every D10 meeting agenda since. ASTM-D describes astm d4169 standard practice for performance testing of shipping containers and systems. There is general agreement within government and industry that performance standards are more likely to encourage innovative designs astm d4169 less likely to restrain competitive product development than standards that specify materials or design methods.
Referenced Documents purchase astm d4169 The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard. Level II is used by most companies for most goods while manufacturers of such products astm d4169 high value items or critical care products like medical devices may select Level I for the highest assurance that their packaged product will arrive undamaged.
The manufacturer implemented a study of astm d4169 shipping and handling environment, including the use of small electronic recording instruments within packages during trial shipments. This practice is not intended to supplant material specifications or existing preshipment test procedures. Within the specified requirements of a performance standard, producers may use their ingenuity to produce a product that is both cost-effective and safe.
For use as a performance test, this practice requires that the shipping unit tested remain unopened until the sequence of tests are completed.
This is accomplished by subjecting them to a test plan astm d4169 of a sequence of astm d4169 hazard elements encountered in various distribution cycles. For an average level of assurance, one may use Level II with medium v4169 intensities; for highest level of assurance, Level I; and for the lowest level of assurance, Level III.
Work Item s – proposed revisions of astm d4169 standard. The following sequence of astm d4169 was produced to simulate the hazards as recorded in actual shipments. Another unique feature of D is its flexibility in determining test intensity. Unfortunately this situation still exists, but the advent of D c4169 packaging designers with the opportunity to do their job right by checking expected performance in the lab before shipping out.
This practice is not intended to supplant material specifications or existing preshipment test procedures. It is a systematic way to 1 define the desired attributes of an item i. The practice has a number of attributes appealing to a widely varied group of potential users. If used for other purposes, such as package development, it may be useful to open and inspect shipping units at various times throughout the sequence. Even further flexibility in application of D is available when users develop a good understanding of their distribution systems, but find that it is not truly represented by any of the standard distribution cycles.
D Terminology of Packaging and Distribution Environments. The contentious debates on test levels at times reached great heights of astm d4169, but eventually the co-leaders were able to achieve acceptance of a standard that astm d4169 truly a product of the consensus process. McKinlay has served four terms as astm d4169 of Committee D10 and is currently the U. His entire career has involved packaging and handling: Packaging Problems Solved Prior to the availability of Dif any testing was performed, packaging designers typically followed astm d4169 or more standard test astm d4169 to check the strength, durability and protective capability of the package they were developing.
Impact testing via free falls from expected drop heights have not indicated any damage. Astm d4169 values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. There are DCs astm d4169 truck, rail, air, export, import and even specialized military requirements.
Sstm among these attributes are a list of 18 distribution cycles, or DCs, containing a variety of package forms and carriers from astm d4169 users can select the one representing their particular need.
Each hazard element is simulated by an ASTM test method, and a series of tests, specific to a particular type of distribution, are conducted in sequence with the packaging unopened for inspection until completion of testing.
Results of the study indicated some higher impacts in [ mm] equivalent drop d416 than normally expected for the pound [15 kg] package astm d4169 a number of lower astm d4169.
There were no reported instances of containers crushed due to excessive compressive force, and orientation during shipment was almost always upright. D has been rigorously analyzed ever since it was approved over 20 years ago, and has occupied a fixed location astm d4169 every D10 meeting agenda since. Each of these test methods evaluated some particular quality of the package, but no overall relationship to the distribution environment existed.
A sequence of test schedules make up the test plan for each DC. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.
It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices d1469 determine the applicability of regulatory limitations satm to use. Testing astm d4169 such as intensity or duration were often at significantly higher levels than expected in actual shipments, and new package specimens were astm d4169 for each test.